The bitter struggle that rolled back and forth across the North African desert was the first major Allied victory of the Second World War. ODAL!Music: ODAL!Video: channel/rfyxEnAH7Uy. North Africa campaigns, (–43), in World War II, series of battles for but significant events that bound the Axis Powers and culminated in a world war.

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If Italy sided with Germany, the powerful Italian navy had the capability to close the Mediterranean. The British fell back again, this time to the vicinity of El Alamein, another miles to the east. La Seconde Guerre Mondiale, vol4: Rommel handled his tanks more skillfully than the British, however, and he made clever and effective use of concealed antitank guns.

Hampered by a divided German command structure and rapidly massing Allied reinforcements, the attack stalled.

World War II: North Africa Campaign | HistoryNet

On the 30th, Rommel consolidated his armor in a defensive position that came to be known as froces Cauldron. Retrieved 17 December On October 25,the Rome-Berlin Axis was proclaimed, but Italy, its strength depleted by the Ethiopian campaign and by its support for Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil Warwas in no condition to support Germany during the first nine months of World War II.

The British continued to press the attack, and on November 29 they broke through to Tobruk. He afric four unmotorized Italian divisions as a holding force opposite the Gazala line. On June 21 Rommel captured the fortress of Tobruk, its 33,man garrison, and an immense amount of stores. In addition, the French fleet was captured at Toulon by the Italians, something which did them little good as the main portion of the fleet had been scuttled to prevent their use by the Axis.

Spearheaded by tanks, it was the xais potent offensive Rommel mounted since arriving in Tunisia. During this period of weakness, the Allies decided against a rapid advance into Tunisia while they wrestled with the Vichy authorities. He arrived near el-Alamein on the evening of October 25 to take charge of nkrth defense.

By Januarythe front line was again at El Agheila. The French surrender on June 25,placed the entire burden of controlling of the Mediterranean sea lanes on the Royal Navy. He now was ready to return to the offensive.


He was promoted to the temporary rank of lieutenant general in March and led the U. Although Rommel had been ordered nprth simply hold the line, an armoured reconnaissance soon became a full-fledged offensive from El Agheila in March Nevertheless, the impetus of the British onslaught was stopped the next day, when German antitank guns took a heavy toll of armour trying to….

Rommel skillfully parried the thrust, and the British withdrew from Fort Capuzzo the next day. A fluctuating series of battles for control of Libya and regions of Egypt followed, flrces a climax in the Second Battle of El Alamein in October when British Commonwealth forces under the command of Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery inflicted a decisive defeat on Rommel’s Afrika Korps and forced its remnants into Tunisia.

Arnim assumed overall Axis command, and Messe took command in south Tunisia. On December 9 the Italian garrisons at Nibeiwa, Tummar 1940-433, and Tummar East were taken, and thousands of prisoners were captured, whereas the attackers suffered very light casualties.

The attack had failed by March NearlyAxis and Allied troops were either lost, injured, or died of disease by the end of the North African Campaign.

Once on the plateau, however, military vehicles had good cross-country mobility across limestone axia covered by a thin layer of sand. Churchill heard the news during a meeting with President Franklin Forcds.

North African Campaign

The troops of the Afrika Korps were too tired and too few to make a fresh effort, and Rommel had to break off the attack, even though it meant giving Auchinleck time to bring up reinforcements. By December 7, an overwhelmed Rommel was withdrawing his dangerously depleted forces. William Gott, to secure the pass and Fort Capuzzo beyond. After several days of slow advances, he reached Thala on February 21 but could advance affrica farther.

On September 13,Graziani reluctantly moved into Egypt, almost a month after he had been ordered to do so by Mussolini. Bradley, took Mateur ais May 3 and Bizerte on May 7.

The 1940-4 Signals Battalion monitored radio communications among British units. Italy 22, dead or missing; [6] ,—, captured. The Germans gave Keyes a funeral with full military honors, and the gallant Rommel sent his personal chaplain to conduct the services.


Rommel, who had been promoted to field marshal for his success at Gazala, pursued. Bengal famine of Chinese famine of —43 Forcees Famine of Dutch famine of —45 Vietnamese Famine of The offensive was to begin with a night attack, and adequate moonlight was needed for the process of clearing gaps in the German minefields.

Rommel continued to grow weaker.

North African Campaign – Wikipedia

In fact, many among the British forces disparagingly referred to their American allies as our Italians. Following the Operation Torch landings, from early Novemberthe Germans and Italians initiated a buildup of troops in Tunisia to fill the vacuum left by Vichy troops which had withdrawn. Heavy losses of German paratroopers in Crete, made possible by Ultra warnings of the drop times and locations, meant that Hitler hesitated in attacking Malta, [69] which aided the British in gaining control of the Mediterranean, as did the losses of the Italian Navy at the Battle of Cape Matapan.

By the time he got to Tunisia, however, another Allied force was there waiting for him.

By April 11 the British had been swept out of Cyrenaica and over the Egyptian frontier. This was critical in providing the British with the opportunity to intercept and destroy them. In two months, a British force of about two divisions had advanced miles, destroyed 10 Italian divisions, and capturedprisoners, tanks and guns. The various Free French factions were finally united and organized under the Allied command.

Britain and Italy were now at war in the Mediterranean. Ultra intercepts provided valuable information about the times and routes of Axis supply shipments across the Forcez.

The turnabout doomed any chance that Rommel may have had of making an effective stand, as a resumption of the defense of el-Alamein was an exercise in futility.